Adipose Derived Stem Cells
Adult stem cells represent several populations of stem cells derived from freshly isolated adipose tissue. These cells have had a plethora of recent publications describing their potential use in clinical applications. Many of these applications are being tested in clinical trials aimed at treating a variety of diseases. These diseases include osteoarthritis, chronic wounds, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory bowl syndrome, and some auto-immune diseases. The success of treatment based on adipose derived stem cells will become more apparent during the next five to ten years with the completion of many clinical trials.
The conceptualization of an adipose stem cell product has been the result of years of research and development with adipose derived stem cells. Adipose derived stem cells are grown out of the stromal vascular fraction after enzymatic processing. These cells are multipotent and have a capability to differentiate in vitro into cells of the osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. Access to these cells is easier and less painful than extracting bone marrow stem cells. In addition, these cells tend to be more abundant as compared to other stem cell sources.
Within the stromal vascular fraction lies a sub population of adipose stem cells called the adipose side population. These cells are unique in that they express a surface bound protein, the ATPase Binding Cassette Transporter (ABC Transporter). This protein is responsible for the active transport of molecules out of the cell. When stained with a DNA binding dye, these cells transport out the dye and become dimmer as compared to the main population of cells. To visualize these on a flow cytometer allows one to see the side population.
Both projects demonstrated the use of adipose cells as a useful product for regenerative medicine. The need for an efficient treatment is great for pets diagnosed with arthritis or other osteogenic conditions. Using these cells to treat animals is an important step to further prove that these cells are capable to be used, ultimately in human therapeutic applications.
Two PGB publications highlight the use of ASCs which were derived from mouse and human sources. These cells were isolated, culturally expanded and differentiated into osteogenic, chonrdogenic and adipogenic lineages. These cells were also placed into a murine wound healing model and showed improved healing abilities. The human project also highlighted with use of human adipose SP cells. These cells were similarly isolated and cultured for expansion. The focus of this project was for use with a bone scaffolding unit. These cells did differentiate into both osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages in vitro. In a rat in vivo model, transplanted cells differentiated into chondrogenic type cells.